Incubator is a device simulates fish incubation by keeping the eggs at a good water flow rate, mixing the eggs with a balance, keeping the oxygen flow in a good condition and incubating artificially in tilapia farming. Purpose of the incubator is to ensure that tilapia eggs are placed in appropriate incubators and maintained in a proper way to maintain a healthy life.

Requirements for Emerging Fish Eggs

  • Adequate oxygen
  • Sufficient temperature
  • Clean and plank-free water
  • Elimination of metabolic waste (CO2 and NH3)
  • Same water flow
  • Protect the ultraviolet rays

Incubator Types


  • Features:Continuous water circulation and elimination, easy access
  • Size:Diameter - 2m - 4m, Depth - 1m
  • Advantages:Creates a natural condition, provides suitable use of space, can be used in large scale production.


  • Features:Less space is required, the same water can be used.
  • Advantages:Easy to use, low cost, large eggs can be incubated.


  • Round bottom, drop-down containers.
  • Grooved type incubators.
  • Rotary barrel or drum incubators.
  • Incubators with double enclosure.
  • Bucket incubators.


Regulation of Water Flow During Incubation

During the incubation, regulate the water flow according to the development stages of the fish egg as follows. These stages:

  • The time during egg swelling.
  • The phase from the first to the end of the morula phase
  • The process until the eye of embryos from blastula stage is seen
  • The stage from the embryo to the exit from the embryo
  • Length of Incubation Period
  • The time required for the fertilized egg to turn into a fish larvae depends mainly on the species of fish, the water temperature and the dissolved oxygen content of the water.

Causes of Egg Death During Incubation

  • Lack of oxygen
  • Unsuitable temperature
  • Injuries during stripping or artificial insemination
  • Mechanical disturbances
  • Larvae or other animals caused by attacks by bacteria, fungi (Saprolegnia) and carnivorous (Cyclops) or breeding of insects

Treatment of Eggs During Incubation

  • Crustaceans and insect larvae can be filtered or controlled by treatment with 1 ppm of organic phosphoric acid ester insecticides.
  • Bacterial attack can only be avoided by using clean water in the hatchery.
  • Malachite green is widely used against fungal infection. Infected eggs are treated with it once a day. In the case of limited infection, the treatment is carried out directly in the incubator (jar, funnel or groove) with 5 ppm malachite green solution for 30-60 minutes.
  • Formalin treatment is also used against fungal infection, but the method requires high sensitivity and care.
  • A single treatment with tannin has proven to be very effective against fungal attacks under tropical and subtropical conditions. Newly prepared 5-8 g tannin solution is used in this process.


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